1. Micro – Economic
2. Macro – Economic
3. Statistics and Econometrics
Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business
Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment- Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy, Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy
Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP
Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA
International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD
World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS
Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing
Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates
Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Insolvency of partnership firms
Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation and reconstruction of companies Holding company accounts
Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing and JIT
Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting
Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS
Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit
Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit
Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and avalanches)UNIT –II: Climatology
Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst , Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidences and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate.UNIT-III: Oceanography
Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and CycloneUNIT –IV: Geography of Environment
Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Polices (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)
Sources of population data (census, sample surveys and vital statistics, data reliability and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.
Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman , and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).
Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.
Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.
Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Education and R & D) Industries.
Geography of Transport and Trade
Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade.
Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India
Cultural and Social Geography
Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.
Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour, Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU). Neopolitics of World Natural Resources.
Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, Scheafer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, man-environment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and Postmodernism).
Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric, Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components (space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams, Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve, Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.
Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System (Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil, Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics (spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex, occupational, educational, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population, Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines), Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy, Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami, Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.)
Confucius, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt, Frantz Fanon, Mao Zedong, John RawlsUnit – 3 : Indian Political Thought
Dharamshastra, Kautilya, Aggannasutta, Barani, Kabir, Pandita Ramabai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Swami Vivekanand, Rabindranath Tagore, M.K Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Muhammad Iqbal, M.N.Roy, V D Savarkar, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, J L Nehru, Ram Manohar Lohia, Jaya Prakash Narayan, Deendayal Upadhyaya
a) Contribution of Indian Schools of philosophy (Sankhya Yoga, Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism) with special reference to Vidya, Dayanand Darshan; and Islamic traditions towards educational aims and methods of acquiring valid knowledge b) Contribution of Western schools of thoughts (Idealism, Realism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Marxism, Existentialism) and their contribution to Education with special reference to information, knowledge and wisdom c) Approaches to Sociology of Education (symbolic Interaction, Structural Functionalism and Conflict Theory). Concept and types of social Institutions and their functions (family, school and society), Concept of Social Movements, Theories of Social Movements (Relative Deprivation, Resource Mobilization, Political Process Theory and New Social Movement Theory) d) Socialization and education- education and culture; Contribution of thinkers (Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Aurobindo, J.Krishnamurthy, Paulo Freire, Wollstonecraft, Nel Noddings and Savitribai Phule) to the development of educational thought for social change, National Values as enshrined in the Indian Constitution – Socialism, Secularism, justice, liberty, democracy, equality, freedom with special reference to educatio
a) Committees and Commissions’ Contribution to Teacher Education Secondary Education Commission (1953), Kothari Education Commission (1964-66), National Policy of Education (1986,1992), National Commission on Teachers (1999), National Curriculum Framework 2005, National Knowledge Commission (2007), Yashpal Committee Report (2009), National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009), Justice Verma Committee Report (2012)
b) Relationship between Policies and Education, Linkage between Educational Policy and National Development, Determinants of Educational Policy and Process of Policy formulation: Analysis of the existing situation, generation of policy options, evaluation of policy options, making the policy decision, planning of policy implementation, policy impact assessment and subsequent policy cycles.
c) Concept of Economics of Education: Cost Benefit Analysis Vs Cost Effective Analysis in Education, Economic returns to Higher Education Signaling Theory Vs Human Capital Theory, Concept of Educational Finance; Educational finance at Micro and Macro Levels, Concept of Budgeting
d) Relationship Between Politics and Education, Perspectives of Politics of Education Liberal, Conservative and Critical, Approaches to understanding Politics (Behaviouralism, Theory of Systems Analysis and Theory of Rational Choice), Education for Political Development and Political Socialization
a) Growth and Development: Concept and principles ,Cognitive Processes and stages of Cognitive Development , Personality: Definitions and theories (Freud, Carl Rogers, Gordon Allport, Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka) , Mental health and Mental hygiene
b) Approaches to Intelligence from Unitary to Multiple: Concepts of Social intelligence, multiple intelligence, emotional intelligence Theories of Intelligence by Sternberg, Gardner, Assessment of Intelligence, Concepts of Problem Solving, Critical thinking, Metacognition and Creativity
c) Principles and Theories of learning: Behaviouristic, Cognitive and Social theories of learning, Factors affecting social learning, social competence, Concept of social cognition, understanding social relationship and socialization goals
d) Guidance and Counselling: Nature, Principles and Need, Types of guidance (educational, vocational, personal, health and social & Directive, Non-directive and Eclectic), Approaches to counselling – Cognitive-Behavioural (Albert Ellis – REBT) & Humanistic, Person-centred Counselling (Carl Rogers) – Theories of Counselling (Behaviouristic, Rational, Emotive and Reality)
a) Meaning, Nature and Scope of Teacher Education; Types of Teacher Education Programs, The Structure of Teacher Education Curriculum and its Vision in Curriculum Documents of NCERT and NCTE at Elementary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Levels, Organization of Components of Pre-service Teacher Education Transactional Approaches (for foundation courses) Expository, Collaborative and Experiential learning
b) Understanding Knowledge base of Teacher Education from the view point of Schulman, Deng and Luke & Habermas, Meaning of Reflective Teaching and Strategies for Promoting Reflective Teaching, Models of Teacher Education – Behaviouristic, Competency-based and Inquiry Oriented Teacher Education Models
c) Concept, Need, Purpose and Scope of In-service Teacher Education, Organization and Modes of In-service Teacher Education, Agencies and Institutions of In-service Teacher Education at District, State and National Levels (SSA, RMSA, SCERT, NCERT, NCTE and UGC), Preliminary Consideration in Planning in-service teacher education programme (Purpose, Duration, Resources and Budget)
d) Concept of Profession and Professionalism, Teaching as a Profession, Professional Ethics of Teachers, Personal and Contextual factors affecting Teacher Development, ICT Integration, Quality Enhancement for Professionalization of Teacher Education, Innovation in Teacher Education
a) Concept and Principles of Curriculum, Strategies of Curriculum Development, Stages in the Process of Curriculum development, Foundations of Curriculum Planning – Philosophical Bases (National, democratic), Sociological basis (socio cultural reconstruction), Psychological Bases (learner’s needs and interests),Bench marking and Role of National level Statutory Bodies – UGC, NCTE and University in Curriculum Development
b) Models of Curriculum Design: Traditional and Contemporary Models (Academic / Discipline Based Model, Competency Based Model, Social Functions / Activities Model [social reconstruction], Individual Needs & Interests Model, Outcome Based Integrative Model, Intervention Model, C I P P Model (Context, Input, Process, Product Model)
c) Instructional System, Instructional Media, Instructional Techniques and Material in enhancing curriculum Transaction, Approaches to Evaluation of Curriculum : Approaches to Curriculum and Instruction (Academic and Competency Based Approaches), Models of Curriculum Evaluation: Tyler’s Model, Stakes’ Model, Scriven’s Model, Kirkpatrick’s Model
d) Meaning and types of Curriculum change, Factors affecting curriculum change, Approaches to curriculum change, Role of students, teachers and educational administrators in curriculum change and improvement, Scope of curriculum research and Types of Research in Curriculum Studies
a) Meaning and Scope of Educational Research, Meaning and steps of Scientific Method, Characteristics of Scientific Method (Replicability, Precision, Falsifiability and Parsimony), Types of Scientific Method (Exploratory, Explanatory and Descriptive), Aims of research as a scientific activity: Problem-solving, Theory Building and Prediction, Types of research (Fundamental, Applied and Action), Approaches to educational research (Quantitative and Qualitative), Designs in educational research (Descriptive, Experimental and Historical)
b) Variables: Meaning of Concepts, Constructs and Variables, Types of Variables (Independent, Dependent, Extraneous, Intervening and Moderator), Hypotheses – Concept, Sources, Types (Research, Directional, Non-directional, Null), Formulating Hypothesis, Characteristics of a good hypothesis, Steps of Writing a Research Proposal, Concept of Universe and Sample, Characteristics of a good Sample, Techniques of Sampling (Probability and Non-probability Sampling), Tools of Research – Validity, Reliability and Standardisation of a Tool, Types of Tools (Rating scale, Attitude scale, Questionnaire, Aptitude test and Achievement Test, Inventory), Techniques of Research (Observation, Interview and Projective Techniques)
c) Types of Measurement Scale (Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio), Quantitative Data Analysis – Descriptive data analysis (Measures of central tendency, variability, fiduciary limits and graphical presentation of data), Testing of Hypothesis (Type I and Type II Errors), Levels of Significance, Power of a statistical test and effect size, Parametric Techniques, Non- Parametric Techniques , Conditions to be satisfied for using parametric techniques, Inferential data analysis, Use and Interpretation of statistical techniques: Correlation, t-test, z-test, ANOVA, chi-square (Equal Probability and Normal Probability Hypothesis). Qualitative Data Analysis – Data Reduction and Classification, Analytical Induction and Constant Comparison, Concept of Triangulation
d) Qualitative Research Designs: Grounded Theory Designs (Types, characteristics, designs, Steps in conducting a GT research, Strengths and Weakness of GT) – Narrative Research Designs (Meaning and key Characteristics, Steps in conducting NR design), Case Study (Meaning, Characteristics, Components of a CS design, Types of CS design, Steps of conducting a CS research, Strengths and weaknesses), Ethnography (Meaning, Characteristics, Underlying assumptions, Steps of conducting ethnographic research, Writing ethnographic account, Strengths and weaknesses), Mixed Method Designs: Characteristics, Types of MM designs (Triangulation, explanatory and exploratory designs), Steps in conducting a MM designs, Strengths and weakness of MM research.
a) Pedagogy, Pedagogical Analysis – Concept and Stages, Critical Pedagogy- Meaning, Need and its implications in Teacher Education, Organizing Teaching: Memory Level (Herbartian Model), Understanding Level (Morrison teaching Model), Reflective Level (Bigge and Hunt teaching Model), Concept of Andragogy in Education: Meaning, Principles, Competencies of Self-directed Learning, Theory of Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles), The Dynamic Model of Learner Autonomy
b) Assessment – Meaning, nature, perspectives (assessment for Learning, assessment of learning and Assessment of Learning) – Types of Assessment (Placement, formative, diagnostic, summative) Relations between objectives and outcomes, Assessment of Cognitive (Anderson and Krathwohl), Affective (Krathwohl) and psychomotor domains (R.H. Dave) of learning
c) Assessment in Pedagogy of Education: Feedback Devices: Meaning, Types, Criteria, Guidance as a Feedback Devices: Assessment of Portfolios, Reflective Journal, Field Engagement using Rubrics, Competency Based Evaluation, Assessment of Teacher Prepared ICT Resources
d) Assessment in Andragogy of Education – Interaction Analysis: Flanders’ Interaction analysis, Galloway’s system of interaction analysis (Recording of Classroom Events, Construction and Interpretation of Interaction Matrix), Criteria for teacher evaluation (Product, Process and Presage criteria, Rubrics for Self and Peer evaluation (Meaning, steps of construction).
a) Concept of Educational Technology (ET) as a Discipline: (Information Technology, Communication Technology & Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Instructional Technology, Applications of Educational Technology in formal, non formal (Open and Distance Learning), informal and inclusive education systems, Overview of Behaviourist, Cognitive and Constructivist Theories and their implications to Instructional Design (Skinner, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Vygotsky), Relationship between Learning Theories and Instructional Strategies (for large and small groups, formal and non formal groups )
b) Systems Approach to Instructional Design, Models of Development of Instructional Design (ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey Model Mason’s), Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction and Five E’s of Constructivism, Nine Elements of Constructivist Instructional Design, Application of Computers in Education: CAI, CAL, CBT, CML, Concept, Process of preparing ODLM, Concept of e learning, Approaches to e-learning (Offline, Online, Synchronous, Asynchronous, Blended learning, mobile learning)
c) Emerging Trends in e learning: Social learning (concept , use of web 2.0 tools for learning, social networking sites, blogs, chats, video conferencing, discussion forum), Open Education Resources (Creative Common, Massive Open Online Courses; Concept and application), E Inclusion – Concept of E Inclusion, Application of Assistive technology in E learning , Quality of E Learning – Measuring quality of system: Information, System, Service, User Satisfaction and Net Benefits (D&M IS Success Model, 2003), Ethical Issues for E Learner and E Teacher – Teaching, Learning and Research
d) Use of ICT in Evaluation, Administration and Research: E portfolios, ICT for Research – Online Repositories and Online Libraries, Online and Offline assessment tools (Online survey tools or test generators) – Concept and Development.
a) Educational Management and Administration – Meaning, Principles, Functions and importance, Institutional building, POSDCORB, CPM, PERT, Management as a system, SWOT analysis, Taylorism, Administration as a process, Administration as a bureaucracy, Human relations approach to Administration, Organisational compliance, Organinsational development, Organisational climate
b) Leadership in Educational Administration: Meaning and Nature, Approaches to leadership: Trait, Transformational, Transactional, Value based, Cultural, Psychodynamic and Charismatic, Models of Leadership (Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Fiedler’s Contingency Model, Tri-dimensional Model, Hersey and Blanchard’s Model, Leader-Member Exchange Theory)
c) Concept of Quality and Quality in Education: Indian and International perspective, Evolution of Quality: Inspection, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management (TQM), Six sigma, Quality Gurus: Walter Shewart, Edward Deming, C.K Pralhad
d) Change Management: Meaning, Need for Planned change, Three-Step-Model of Change (Unfreezing, Moving, Refreezing), The Japanese Models of Change: Just-in-Time, Poka yoke, Cost of Quality: Appraisal Costs, Failure costs and Preventable costs, Cost Benefit Analysis, Cost Effective Analysis, Indian and International Quality Assurance Agencies: Objectives, Functions, Roles and Initiatives (National Assessment Accreditation Council [NAAC], Performance Indicators, Quality Council of India [QCI] , International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education [INQAAHE].
a) Inclusive Education: Concept, Principles, Scope and Target Groups (Diverse learners; Including Marginalized group and Learners with Disabilities), Evolution of the Philosophy of Inclusive Education: Special, Integrated, Inclusive Education, Legal Provisions: Policies and Legislations (National Policy of Education (1986), Programme of Action of Action (1992), Persons with Disabilities Act (1995), National Policy of Disabilities (2006), National Curriculum Framework (2005), Concession and Facilities to Diverse Learners (Academic and Financial), Rehabilitation Council of India Act (1992), Inclusive Education under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Features of UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) and its Implication
b) Concept of Impairment, Disability and Handicap, Classification of Disabilities based on ICF Model, Readiness of School and Models of Inclusion, Prevalence, Types, Characteristics and Educational Needs of Diverse learners’ Intellectual, Physical and Multiple Disabilities, Causes and prevention of disabilities, Identification of Diverse Learners for Inclusion, Educational Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools
c) Planning and Management of Inclusive Classrooms: Infrastructure, Human Resource and Instructional Practices, Curriculum and Curricular Adaptations for Diverse Learners, Assistive and Adaptive Technology for Diverse learners: Product (Aids and Appliances) and Process (Individualized Education Plan, Remedial Teaching), Parent-Professional Partnership: Role of Parents, Peers, Professionals, Teachers, School
d) Barriers and Facilitators in Inclusive Education: Attitude, Social and Educational, Current Status and Ethical Issues of inclusive education in India, Research Trends of Inclusive Education in India.
Mathematical Logic: Propositional and Predicate Logic, Propositional Equivalences, Normal Forms, Predicates and Quantifiers, Nested Quantifiers, Rules of Inference. Sets and Relations: Set Operations, Representation and Properties of Relations, Equivalence Relations, Partially Ordering. Counting, Mathematical Induction and Discrete Probability Basics of Counting, Pigeonhole Principle, Permutations and Combinations, Inclusion- Exclusion Principle, Mathematical Induction, Probability, Bayes’ Theorem. Group Theory Groups, Subgroups, Semi Groups, Product and Quotients of Algebraic Structures, Isomorphism, Homomorphism, Automorphism, Rings, Integral Domains, Fields, Applications of Group Theory. Group Theory Simple Graph, Multigraph, Weighted Graph, Paths and Circuits, Shortest Paths in Weighted Graphs, Eulerian Paths and Circuits, Hamiltonian Paths and Circuits, Planner graph, Graph Coloring, Bipartite Graphs, Trees and Rooted Trees, Prefix Codes, Tree Traversals, Spanning Trees and Cut-Sets. Boolean Algebra: Boolean Functions and its Representation, Simplifications of Boolean Functions.. Optimization: inear Programming – Mathematical Model, Graphical Solution, Simplex and Dual Simplex Method, Sensitive Analysis; Integer Programming, Transportation and Assignment Models, PERT-CPM: Diagram Representation, Critical Path Calculations, Resource Levelling, Cost Consideration in Project Scheduling.Unit – 1 : Discrete Structures and Optimization
Digital Logic Circuits and Components: Digital Computers, Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, Map Simplifications, Combinational Circuits, Flip-Flops, Sequential Circuits, Integrated Circuits, Decoders, Multiplexers, Registers and Counters, Memory Unit. Data Representation: Data Types, Number Systems and Conversion, Complements, Fixed Point Representation, Floating Point Representation, Error Detection Codes, Computer Arithmetic – Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Algorithms. Register Transfer and Microoperations: Register Transfer Language, Bus and Memory Transfers, Arithmetic, Logic and Shift Microoperations. Basic Computer Organization and Design: Stored Program Organization and Instruction Codes, Computer Registers, Computer Instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction Cycle, Memory-Reference Instructions, Input-Output, Interrupt. Programming the Basic Computer: Machine Language, Assembly Language, Assembler, Program Loops, Subroutines, Input-Output Programming. Microprogrammed Control: Control Memory, Address Sequencing, Design of Control Unit. Central Processing Unit: General Register Organization, Stack Organization, Instruction Formats, Addressing Modes, RISC Computer, CISC Computer. Pipeline and Vector Processing: Parallel Processing, Pipelining, Arithmetic Pipeline, Instruction Pipeline, Vector Processing Array Processors. Input-Output Organization: Peripheral Devices, Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous Data Transfer, Modes of Transfer, Priority Interrupt, DMA, Serial Communication. Memory Hierarchy: Main Memory, Auxillary Memory, Associative Memory, Cache Memory, Virtual Memory, Memory Management Hardware. Multiprocessors: Characteristics of Multiprocessors, Interconnection Structures, Interprocessor Arbitration, Interprocessor Communication and Synchronization, Cache Coherence, Multicore Processors.
Introduction to Public Administration: Public Administration- Meaning, Nature, Scope & Significance; Evolution and Present Status of the Discipline; Politics- Administration Dichotomy; Globalization and Public Administration; Paradigm shift from Government to Governance. Principles of Organization: Division of work; Hierarchy; Coordination; Unity of Command; Span of Control; Authority, Power and Responsibility; Delegation, Centralization and Decentralization; Line, Staff and Auxiliary Agencies; Leadership and Supervision; Decision-making and Communication. Meaning, Nature and Scope of Personnel Administration: Classification, Recruitment, Training, Promotion, Compensation and service conditions, Discipline, Civil Service Neutrality, Anonymity and Commitment, Professional Associations and Unionism.Unit II
Administrative Thought: Approaches to the study of Public Administration: Oriental – Kautilya; Classical – F W Taylor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick ; Human Relations – Elton Mayo, Mary Parker Follett; Behaviouralism – Chester Barnard, Herbert Simon; Motivation – Abraham Maslow, Fredrick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor; Organizational Humanism – Chris Argyris, Rensis Likert; Writers on Administration: Dwight Waldo, Ferrel Heady, Robert Golembiewski and Peter Drucker; Minnobrook Perspective, New Public Service and Post Modernism.Unit III
Administrative Thought: Indian Administration: Evolution – Ancient, Mughal and British Periods; Constitutional Framework: Parliamentary and Federal Features. Union Government: President; Prime Minister & Council of Ministers; Cabinet Committees; Central Secretariat; Cabinet Secretariat; and Prime Minister Office. Election Commission and Electoral Reforms, Union State Relations. Accountability: Legislative; Executive; and Judicial. Citizen Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Lok Pal; Lok Ayukta; Central Vigilance Commission and Regulatory Authorities. Issue Areas: Politician and Civil Servant relations, Generalists and Specialists debate and Combating Corruption. Civil Services: Classification – All India Services, Central Services and State Services; Recruitment Agencies – Union Public Service Commission, State Public Service Commissions and other Commissions and Boards: Capacity Building of Civil Servants and Civil Service Reforms. Planning: Planning Commission, National Development Council, NITI Aayog, State Planning Commissions / Boards and Planning Departments. Judiciary: Indian Constitution and Independence of Judiciary: Supreme Court; High Courts; Judicial Review and Public Interest Litigation and Judicial Reforms. Police Administration and Reforms. E- Governance Initiatives in Indian administration.
Negotiating the Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, Excavation, Epigraphy and Numismatics. Dating of Archaeological Sites. Literary Sources: Indigenous Literature: Primary and Secondary: problem of dating Religious and Secular Literature, Myths, Legends, etc. Foreign Accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arabic. Pastoralism and Food production: Neolithic and Chalcolithic Phase: Settlement, distribution, tools and patterns of exchange. Indus/Harappa Civilization: Origin, extent, major sites, settlement pattern, craft specialization, religion, society and polity, Decline of Indus Civilization, Internal and external trade, First urbanization in India. Vedic and later Vedic periods : Aryan debates, Political and Social Institutions, State Structure and Theories of State; Emergence of Varnas and Social Stratification, Religious and Philosophical Ideas. Introduction of Iron Technology, Megaliths of South India. Expansion of State system: Mahajanapadas, Monarchical and Republican States, Economic and Social Developments and Emergence of Second Urbanization in 6th century BCE; Emergence of heterodox sects-Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivikas.Unit II
From State to Empire: Rise of Magadha, Greek invasion under Alexander and its effects, Mauryan expansion, Mauryan polity, society, economy, Asoka’s Dhamma and its Nature, Decline and Disintegration of the Mauryan Empire, Mauyan art and architecture, Asokan edicts: language and script.Dissolution of Empire and Emergence of Regional Powers: Indo-Greeks, Sungas, Satavahanas, Kushanas and Saka-Ksatrapas, Sangam literature, polity and society in South India as reflected in Sangam literature. Trade and commerce from 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE, Trade with the Roman World, Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism, Kharavela and Jainism, Post-Mauryan art and Architecture. Gandhara, Mathura and Amaravati schools. Gupta Vakataka age: Polity and Society, Agrarian Economy, Land Grants, Land Revenue and Land Rights, Gupta Coins, Beginning of Temple Architecture, Emergence of Puranic Hinduism, Development of Sanskrit Language and Literature. Developments in Science Technology, Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine. Harsha and his Times: Administration and Religion. Salankayanas and Visnukundins in Andhradesa.
1. Physical education and adapted physical education, their objectives 2. Philosophies of education as applied to physical education 3. Development of Physical education in Greece, Rome, Sweden, Russia England, Denmark, Germany, USA, Australia and China. 4. Growth and development of physical education in India: 5. Recreation- its principles, characteristics and importance. Modern trends in recreation. Indoor and outdoor recreational programmes. Recreational programmes for various categories of people. 6. Wellness- its importance, benefits and challenges. Development and maintenance of wellness. 7. Teaching Aptitude – nature, objectives, characteristics of teaching, learner characteristics and teaching methods. 8. Social aspects of sports- sports as a socializing agency, social values, sports leadership, sports as cultural heritage and social aspects of competition. 9. Ancient & Modern Olympics games, Asian and Commonwealth games. Structure and functions of international and national bodies controlling various games and sports, Prominent honours and awards in games and sports.Unit – II
1. Exercise physiology its scope and importance in the field of physical education and sports. 2. Cardio respiratory adaptations to long and short term physical activities. 3. Muscle- its types , characteristics and functions. Microscopic structure of muscle fibre. Sliding filament theory of muscular contraction. Types of muscle fibres and sports performance. Muscular adaptations to exercise. 4. Neuro-muscular junction and transmission of nerve impulse, kinesthetic Sense organs and neural control of motor skills. 5. Bio-chemical aspects of exercise – Metabolism of food products. Aerobic and anaerobic systems during rest and exercise. Direct and indirect methods of measuring energy cost of exercise. 6. Recovery process – Physiological aspects of fatigue. Restoration of energy stores. Recovery oxygen. Nutritional aspects of performance. 7. Environmental influence on human physiology under exercise. 8. Women in sports- trainability. Physiological gender differences and special problems of women athletes. 9. Aging – Physiological consequences, life style management and healthful aging. 10. Physiological responses of various therapeutic modalities and rehabilitation. 11. Physiological aspects of various Ergogenic aids. Massage manipulations and their physiological responses.