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UGC NET Economics Syllabus 2019

1. Micro – Economic

  • Theory of Consumer Behaviour
  • Theory of Production and Costs
  • Decision making under uncertainty Attitude towards Risk
  • Game Theory – Non Cooperative games
  • Market Structures, competitive and non-competitive equilibria and their efficiency properties
  • Factor Pricing
  • General Equilibrium Analysis
  • Efficiency Criteria: Pareto-Optimality, Kaldor – Hicks and Wealth Maximization
  • Welfare Economics: Fundamental Theorems , Social Welfare Function
  • Asymmetric Information: Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

2. Macro – Economic

  • National Income: Concepts and Measurement
  • Determination of output and employment: Classical & Keynesian Approach
  • Consumption Function
  • Investment Function
  • Multiplier and Accelerator
  • Demand for Money
  • Supply of Money
  • IS – LM Model Approach
  • Inflation and Phillips Curve Analysis
  • Business Cycles
  • Monetary and Fiscal Policy
  • Rational Expectation Hypothesis and its critique

3. Statistics and Econometrics

  • Probability Theory: Concepts of probability, Distributions, Moments, Central Limit theorem
  • Descriptive Statistics – Measures of Central tendency & dispersions, Correlation, Index Numbers
  • Sampling methods & Sampling Distribution
  • Statistical Inferences, Hypothesis testing
  • Linear Regression Models and their properties – BLUE
  • Identification Problem
  • Simultaneous Equation Models – recursive and non-recursive
  • Discrete choice models
  • Time Series Analysis
  • Differential Calculus and its Applications
  • Linear Algebra – Matrices, Vector Spaces
  • Static Optimization Problems and their applications
  • Input-Output Model, Linear Programming
  • Difference and Differential equations with applications
  • International Trade: Basic concepts and analytical tools
  • Theories of International Trade
  • International Trade under imperfect competition
  • Balance of Payments: Composition, Equilibrium and Disequilibrium and Adjustment Mechanisms
  • Exchange Rate: Concepts and Theories
  • Foreign Exchange Market and Arbitrage
  • Gains from Trade, Terms of Trade, Trade Multiplier
  • Tariff and Non-Tariff barriers to trade; Dumping
  • GATT, WTO and Regional Trade Blocks; Trade Policy Issues
  • IMF & World Bank
  • Market Failure and Remedial Measures: Asymmetric Information, Public Goods, Externality
  • Regulation of Market – Collusion and Consumers’ Welfare
  • Public Revenue: Tax & Non-Tax Revenue, Direct & Indirect Taxes, Progressive and non-Progressive Taxation, Incidence and Effects of Taxation
  • Public expenditure
  • Public Debt and its management
  • Public Budget and Budget Multiplier
  • Fiscal Policy and its implications
  • Components of Money Supply
  • Central Bank
  • Commercial Banking
  • Instruments and Working of Monetary Policy
  • Non-banking Financial Institutions
  • Capital Market and its Regulation
  • Economic Growth and Economic Development
  • Theories of Economic Development: Adam Smith, Ricardo, Marx, Schumpeter, Rostow, Balanced & Unbalanced growth, Big Push approach.
  • Models of Economic Growth: Harrod-Domar, Solow, Robinson, Kaldor
  • Technical progress – Disembodied & embodied; endogenous growth
  • Indicators of Economic Development: PQLI, HDI, SDGs
  • Poverty and Inequalities – Concepts and Measurement
  • Social Sector Development: Health, Education, Gender
  • Environment as a Public Good
  • Market Failure
  • Coase Theorem
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis and Compensation Criteria
  • Valuation of Environmental Goods
  • Theories of Population
  • Concepts and Measures: Fertility, Morbidity, Mortality
  • Age Structure, Demographic Dividend
  • Life Table
  • Migration
  • Economic Growth in India: Pattern and Structure
  • Agriculture: Pattern & Structure of Growth, Major Challenges, Policy Responses
  • Industry: Pattern & Structure of Growth, Major Challenges, Policy Responses
  • Services: Pattern & Structure of Growth, Major Challenges, Policy Responses
  • Rural Development – Issues, Challenges & Policy Responses
  • Urban Development – Issues, Challenges and Policy Responses.
  • Foreign Trade: Structure and Direction, BOP, Flow of Foreign Capital, Trade Policies
  • Infrastructure Development: Physical and Social; Public-Private Partnerships
  • Reforms in Land, Labour and Capital Markets
  • Centre-State Financial Relations and Finance Commissions of India; FRBM
  • Poverty, Inequality & Unemploymen

UGC NET Commerce Syllabus 2019

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business
Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment- Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy, Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy
Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP
Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA
International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD
World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS


Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing
Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates
Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Insolvency of partnership firms
Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation and reconstruction of companies Holding company accounts
Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing and JIT
Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting
Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS
Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit
Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

  • Meaning and scope of business economics
  • Objectives of business firms
  • Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR
  • Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis
  • Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale, Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves
  • Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination
  • Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak load pricing
  • Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing
  • Cost of capital and time value of money
  • Capital structure
  • Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis
  • Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies
  • Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization
  • International monetary system
  • Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques
  • International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs
  • International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Measures of dispersion
  • Measures of skewness
  • Correlation and regression of two variables
  • Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem
  • Probability distributions: Binomial, poisson and normal distributions
  • Research: Concept and types; Research designs
  • Data: Collection and classification of data
  • Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling – probability and non-probability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation
  • Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi–square test; Mann-Whitney test (U-test); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test
  • Principles and functions of management, Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control
  • Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization
  • Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories
  • Corporate governance and business ethics
  • Human resource management: Concept, role and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning
  • Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits
  • Performance appraisal including 360 degree performance appraisal
  • Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management
  • Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change
  • Overview of Indian financial system
  • Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks
  • Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management
  • Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management
  • Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market
  • Financial Regulators in India
  • Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion
  • Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems
  • Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting and positioning
  • Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development
  • Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management
  • Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions
  • Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM
  • Logistics management
  • Service marketing
  • Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi contracts;
  • Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency
  • Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of buyer
  • Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India
  • The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cyber crimes and penalties
  • The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions
  • The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions
  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) : Patents, trademarks and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST
  • The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint stock company
  • Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes
  • International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing, Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations
  • Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income-tax returns

Syllabus of Geography for UGC NET Exam 2019

    UNIT-I: Geomorphology

Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and avalanches)

UNIT –II: Climatology

Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst , Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidences and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate.

UNIT-III: Oceanography

Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and Cyclone

UNIT –IV: Geography of Environment

Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Polices (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)


Population Geography
Sources of population data (census, sample surveys and vital statistics, data reliability and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.

Settlement Geography
Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman , and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).

Economic Geography
Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.

Agricultural Geography
Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.

Industrial Geography
Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Education and R & D) Industries.

Geography of Transport and Trade
Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade.

Regional Development
Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India

Cultural and Social Geography
Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.

Political Geography
Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour, Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU). Neopolitics of World Natural Resources.

Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, Scheafer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, man-environment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and Postmodernism).

Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric, Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components (space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams, Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve, Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.

Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System (Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil, Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics (spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex, occupational, educational, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population, Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines), Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy, Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami, Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.)

Syllabus of Political Science for UGC NET Exam 2019

Unit – 2 : Political Thought

Confucius, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt, Frantz Fanon, Mao Zedong, John Rawls

Unit – 3 : Indian Political Thought

Dharamshastra, Kautilya, Aggannasutta, Barani, Kabir, Pandita Ramabai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Swami Vivekanand, Rabindranath Tagore, M.K Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Muhammad Iqbal, M.N.Roy, V D Savarkar, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, J L Nehru, Ram Manohar Lohia, Jaya Prakash Narayan, Deendayal Upadhyaya


  • Approaches: Institutional, Political Culture, Political Economy and New Institutionalism; Comparative Methods
  • Colonialism and decolonization: forms of colonialism, anti-colonial struggles and decolonization
  • Nationalism: European and non-European.
  • State theory: debate over the nature of state in capitalist and socialist societies; post-colonial state; welfare state; globalization and nations-states
  • Political regimes: democratic (Electoral, Liberal, Majoritarian and Participatory) and non-democratic regimes (Patrimonialism, Bureaucratic authoritarianism, Military dictatorship, Totalitarianism, and fascist).
  • Constitutions and Constitutionalism: forms of constitutions, rule of law, judicial independence and liberal constitutionalism; emergency powers and crisis of constitutionalism.
  • Democratisation: democratic transition and consolidation.
  • Development: Underdevelopment, Dependency, Modernization, World Systems Theory, development and democracy.
  • Structures of Power: ruling class, power elites, democratic elitism
  • Actor and Processes: Electoral Systems, Political Parties and Party System, Interest groups, Social movements, new social movements, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and civil society campaigns; Revolutions.
  • Approaches to the study of International relations: Idealism, Realism, Structural Marxism, Neoliberalism, Neorealism, Social Constructivism, Critical International Theory, Feminism, Postmodernism.
  • Concepts: State, state system and non-state actors, Power, Sovereignty, Security: traditional and non- traditional.
  • Conflict and Peace: Changing Nature of Warfare; Weapons of mass destruction; deterrence; conflict resolution, conflict transformation.
  • United Nations: Aims, Objectives, Structure and Evaluation of the Working of UN; Peace and Development perspectives; Humanitarian intervention. International law; International Criminal Court
  • Political Economy of IR; Globalisation; Global governance and Bretton Woods system, North-South Dialogue, WTO, G-20, BRICS.
  • Regional Organisations: European Union, African Union, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN.
  • Contemporary Challenges: International terrorism, Climate change and Environmental Concerns, Human Rights, Migration and Refugees; Poverty and Development; Role of Religion, Culture and Identity Politics.
  • Perspectives on India’s Foreign Policy: India’s Identity as postcolonial, development, rising power and as emerging political economy
  • Continuity and change in India’s Foreign Policy: Principles and determinants; Non-Alignment movement: historical background and relevance of Non Aligned Movement; India’s Nuclear Policy
  • India’s relations with major powers: USA, USSR/Russia, People’s Republic of China
  • India’s Engagement with multipolar world: India’s relations with European Union, BRICS, ASEAN, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, African Union, Southern African Development Community, Gulf Cooperation Council
  • India’s relations with neighbourhood: SAARC, Gujaral doctrine, Look Eas t/ Act East, Look West.
  • India’s Negotiation Strategies in International Regimes: The United Nations, World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Contemporary challenges: maritime security, energy security, environmental security, migrants and refugees, water resources, international terrorism, cyber security
  • Making of the Indian Constitution: Colonialism heritage and the contribution Indian National Movement to the making of the Indian Constitution
  • Constituent Assembly: Composition, Ideological Moorings, Constitutional Debates
  • Philosophy of the Constitution: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles
  • Constitutionalism in India: Democracy, Social Change, National Unity, Checks and Balances, Basic Structure Debate, Constitutional Amendments
  • Union Executive: President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
  • Union Parliament: Structure, Role and Functioning, Parliamentary Committees
  • Judiciary: Supreme Court, High Court, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism, Judicial Reform.
  • Executive and Legislature in the States: Governor, Chief Minister, State Legislature
  • Federalism in India: Strong Centre Framework, Asymmetrical Federal Provisions and Adaption, Role of Intergovernmental Coordination Mechanisms, Inter-State Council, Emerging Trends.
  • Electoral Process and Election Commission of India: Conduct of Elections, Rules, Electoral Reforms.
  • Local Government Institutions: Functioning and reforms.
  • Constitutional and Statutory Bodies: Comptroller and Auditor General, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Human Rights, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Minorities.
  • State, Economy and Development: Nature of Indian State, Development Planning model, New Economic Policy, Growth and Human Development.
  • Process of globalisation: social and economic implications.
  • Identity Politics: Religion, Tribe, Caste, Region, Language.
  • Social Movements: Dalit, Tribal, Women, Farmers, labour
  • Civil Society Groups: Non-Party Social Formations, Non-Governmental Organisations, Social Action Groups.
  • Regionalisation of Indian Politics: Reorganisation of Indian States, States as Political and Economic Units, Sub-State Regions, Regional disparities, Demand for New States,
  • Gender and Politics in India: Issues of Equality and Representation.
  • Ideology and Social basis of Political Parties: National Parties, State Parties.
  • Electoral Politics: Participation, Contestation, Representation, Emerging trends.
  • Public Administration: meaning and evolution; public and private administration
  • Approaches: System Theory, Decision Making, Ecological Approach
  • Public administration theories and concepts: Scientific Management Theory, Rational Choice theory, New Public Administration, Development Administration,
  • Comparative Public Administration, New Public Management, changing nature of Public Administration in the era of liberalisation and Globalisation
  • Theories and Principles of Organization: Scientific Management Theory, Bureaucratic Theory, Human Relations Theory
  • Managing the organization: Theories of leadership and motivation.
  • Organisational Communication: Theories and Principles, Chester Bernard Principles of Communication, Information Management in the organization
  • Managing Conflict in the Organization: Mary Parker Follett
  • Management by Objectives- Peter Drucker
  • Governance, good governance and democratic governance, role of state, civil society and individuals.
  • Accountability and control: Institutional mechanism for checks and balances, legislative control over executive, administrative and budgetary control, control through parliamentary committees, judicial control over legislature and executive, administrative culture, corruption and administrative reforms
  • Institutional mechanisms for good governance: Right to Information, Consumer Protection Act, Citizen Charter; Grievance redress system: Ombudsman, Lokpal, Lokayukta
  • Grassroots Governance: Panchayati Raj Institutions and their functioning
  • Planning and Development: Decentralised planning, planning for development, sustainable development, participatory development, e-governance; NITI Aayog
  • Public policy as an instrument of socio-economic development: public policies with special reference to housing, health, drinking water, food security, MNREGA, NHRM, RTE
  • Monitoring and evaluation of public policy; mechanisms of making governance process accountable: jansunwai, social audit.

Syllabus of Education for UGC NET Exam 2019

Unit 1: Educational Studies

a) Contribution of Indian Schools of philosophy (Sankhya Yoga, Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism) with special reference to Vidya, Dayanand Darshan; and Islamic traditions towards educational aims and methods of acquiring valid knowledge
b) Contribution of Western schools of thoughts (Idealism, Realism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Marxism, Existentialism) and their contribution to Education with special reference to information, knowledge and wisdom
c) Approaches to Sociology of Education (symbolic Interaction, Structural Functionalism and Conflict Theory). Concept and types of social Institutions and their functions (family, school and society), Concept of Social Movements, Theories of Social Movements (Relative Deprivation, Resource Mobilization, Political Process Theory and New Social Movement Theory) d) Socialization and education- education and culture; Contribution of thinkers (Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Aurobindo, J.Krishnamurthy, Paulo Freire, Wollstonecraft, Nel Noddings and Savitribai Phule) to the development of educational thought for social change, National Values as enshrined in the Indian Constitution – Socialism, Secularism, justice, liberty, democracy, equality, freedom with special reference to educatio


a) Committees and Commissions’ Contribution to Teacher Education Secondary Education Commission (1953), Kothari Education Commission (1964-66), National Policy of Education (1986,1992), National Commission on Teachers (1999), National Curriculum Framework 2005, National Knowledge Commission (2007), Yashpal Committee Report (2009), National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009), Justice Verma Committee Report (2012)
b) Relationship between Policies and Education, Linkage between Educational Policy and National Development, Determinants of Educational Policy and Process of Policy formulation: Analysis of the existing situation, generation of policy options, evaluation of policy options, making the policy decision, planning of policy implementation, policy impact assessment and subsequent policy cycles.
c) Concept of Economics of Education: Cost Benefit Analysis Vs Cost Effective Analysis in Education, Economic returns to Higher Education Signaling Theory Vs Human Capital Theory, Concept of Educational Finance; Educational finance at Micro and Macro Levels, Concept of Budgeting
d) Relationship Between Politics and Education, Perspectives of Politics of Education Liberal, Conservative and Critical, Approaches to understanding Politics (Behaviouralism, Theory of Systems Analysis and Theory of Rational Choice), Education for Political Development and Political Socialization

a) Growth and Development: Concept and principles ,Cognitive Processes and stages of Cognitive Development , Personality: Definitions and theories (Freud, Carl Rogers, Gordon Allport, Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka) , Mental health and Mental hygiene
b) Approaches to Intelligence from Unitary to Multiple: Concepts of Social intelligence, multiple intelligence, emotional intelligence Theories of Intelligence by Sternberg, Gardner, Assessment of Intelligence, Concepts of Problem Solving, Critical thinking, Metacognition and Creativity
c) Principles and Theories of learning: Behaviouristic, Cognitive and Social theories of learning, Factors affecting social learning, social competence, Concept of social cognition, understanding social relationship and socialization goals
d) Guidance and Counselling: Nature, Principles and Need, Types of guidance (educational, vocational, personal, health and social & Directive, Non-directive and Eclectic), Approaches to counselling – Cognitive-Behavioural (Albert Ellis – REBT) & Humanistic, Person-centred Counselling (Carl Rogers) – Theories of Counselling (Behaviouristic, Rational, Emotive and Reality)

a) Meaning, Nature and Scope of Teacher Education; Types of Teacher Education Programs, The Structure of Teacher Education Curriculum and its Vision in Curriculum Documents of NCERT and NCTE at Elementary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Levels, Organization of Components of Pre-service Teacher Education Transactional Approaches (for foundation courses) Expository, Collaborative and Experiential learning
b) Understanding Knowledge base of Teacher Education from the view point of Schulman, Deng and Luke & Habermas, Meaning of Reflective Teaching and Strategies for Promoting Reflective Teaching, Models of Teacher Education – Behaviouristic, Competency-based and Inquiry Oriented Teacher Education Models
c) Concept, Need, Purpose and Scope of In-service Teacher Education, Organization and Modes of In-service Teacher Education, Agencies and Institutions of In-service Teacher Education at District, State and National Levels (SSA, RMSA, SCERT, NCERT, NCTE and UGC), Preliminary Consideration in Planning in-service teacher education programme (Purpose, Duration, Resources and Budget)
d) Concept of Profession and Professionalism, Teaching as a Profession, Professional Ethics of Teachers, Personal and Contextual factors affecting Teacher Development, ICT Integration, Quality Enhancement for Professionalization of Teacher Education, Innovation in Teacher Education

a) Concept and Principles of Curriculum, Strategies of Curriculum Development, Stages in the Process of Curriculum development, Foundations of Curriculum Planning – Philosophical Bases (National, democratic), Sociological basis (socio cultural reconstruction), Psychological Bases (learner’s needs and interests),Bench marking and Role of National level Statutory Bodies – UGC, NCTE and University in Curriculum Development
b) Models of Curriculum Design: Traditional and Contemporary Models (Academic / Discipline Based Model, Competency Based Model, Social Functions / Activities Model [social reconstruction], Individual Needs & Interests Model, Outcome Based Integrative Model, Intervention Model, C I P P Model (Context, Input, Process, Product Model)
c) Instructional System, Instructional Media, Instructional Techniques and Material in enhancing curriculum Transaction, Approaches to Evaluation of Curriculum : Approaches to Curriculum and Instruction (Academic and Competency Based Approaches), Models of Curriculum Evaluation: Tyler’s Model, Stakes’ Model, Scriven’s Model, Kirkpatrick’s Model
d) Meaning and types of Curriculum change, Factors affecting curriculum change, Approaches to curriculum change, Role of students, teachers and educational administrators in curriculum change and improvement, Scope of curriculum research and Types of Research in Curriculum Studies

a) Meaning and Scope of Educational Research, Meaning and steps of Scientific Method, Characteristics of Scientific Method (Replicability, Precision, Falsifiability and Parsimony), Types of Scientific Method (Exploratory, Explanatory and Descriptive), Aims of research as a scientific activity: Problem-solving, Theory Building and Prediction, Types of research (Fundamental, Applied and Action), Approaches to educational research (Quantitative and Qualitative), Designs in educational research (Descriptive, Experimental and Historical)
b) Variables: Meaning of Concepts, Constructs and Variables, Types of Variables (Independent, Dependent, Extraneous, Intervening and Moderator), Hypotheses – Concept, Sources, Types (Research, Directional, Non-directional, Null), Formulating Hypothesis, Characteristics of a good hypothesis, Steps of Writing a Research Proposal, Concept of Universe and Sample, Characteristics of a good Sample, Techniques of Sampling (Probability and Non-probability Sampling), Tools of Research – Validity, Reliability and Standardisation of a Tool, Types of Tools (Rating scale, Attitude scale, Questionnaire, Aptitude test and Achievement Test, Inventory), Techniques of Research (Observation, Interview and Projective Techniques)
c) Types of Measurement Scale (Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio), Quantitative Data Analysis – Descriptive data analysis (Measures of central tendency, variability, fiduciary limits and graphical presentation of data), Testing of Hypothesis (Type I and Type II Errors), Levels of Significance, Power of a statistical test and effect size, Parametric Techniques, Non- Parametric Techniques , Conditions to be satisfied for using parametric techniques, Inferential data analysis, Use and Interpretation of statistical techniques: Correlation, t-test, z-test, ANOVA, chi-square (Equal Probability and Normal Probability Hypothesis). Qualitative Data Analysis – Data Reduction and Classification, Analytical Induction and Constant Comparison, Concept of Triangulation
d) Qualitative Research Designs: Grounded Theory Designs (Types, characteristics, designs, Steps in conducting a GT research, Strengths and Weakness of GT) – Narrative Research Designs (Meaning and key Characteristics, Steps in conducting NR design), Case Study (Meaning, Characteristics, Components of a CS design, Types of CS design, Steps of conducting a CS research, Strengths and weaknesses), Ethnography (Meaning, Characteristics, Underlying assumptions, Steps of conducting ethnographic research, Writing ethnographic account, Strengths and weaknesses), Mixed Method Designs: Characteristics, Types of MM designs (Triangulation, explanatory and exploratory designs), Steps in conducting a MM designs, Strengths and weakness of MM research.

a) Pedagogy, Pedagogical Analysis – Concept and Stages, Critical Pedagogy- Meaning, Need and its implications in Teacher Education, Organizing Teaching: Memory Level (Herbartian Model), Understanding Level (Morrison teaching Model), Reflective Level (Bigge and Hunt teaching Model), Concept of Andragogy in Education: Meaning, Principles, Competencies of Self-directed Learning, Theory of Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles), The Dynamic Model of Learner Autonomy
b) Assessment – Meaning, nature, perspectives (assessment for Learning, assessment of learning and Assessment of Learning) – Types of Assessment (Placement, formative, diagnostic, summative) Relations between objectives and outcomes, Assessment of Cognitive (Anderson and Krathwohl), Affective (Krathwohl) and psychomotor domains (R.H. Dave) of learning
c) Assessment in Pedagogy of Education: Feedback Devices: Meaning, Types, Criteria, Guidance as a Feedback Devices: Assessment of Portfolios, Reflective Journal, Field Engagement using Rubrics, Competency Based Evaluation, Assessment of Teacher Prepared ICT Resources
d) Assessment in Andragogy of Education – Interaction Analysis: Flanders’ Interaction analysis, Galloway’s system of interaction analysis (Recording of Classroom Events, Construction and Interpretation of Interaction Matrix), Criteria for teacher evaluation (Product, Process and Presage criteria, Rubrics for Self and Peer evaluation (Meaning, steps of construction).

a) Concept of Educational Technology (ET) as a Discipline: (Information Technology, Communication Technology & Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Instructional Technology, Applications of Educational Technology in formal, non formal (Open and Distance Learning), informal and inclusive education systems, Overview of Behaviourist, Cognitive and Constructivist Theories and their implications to Instructional Design (Skinner, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Vygotsky), Relationship between Learning Theories and Instructional Strategies (for large and small groups, formal and non formal groups )
b) Systems Approach to Instructional Design, Models of Development of Instructional Design (ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey Model Mason’s), Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction and Five E’s of Constructivism, Nine Elements of Constructivist Instructional Design, Application of Computers in Education: CAI, CAL, CBT, CML, Concept, Process of preparing ODLM, Concept of e learning, Approaches to e-learning (Offline, Online, Synchronous, Asynchronous, Blended learning, mobile learning)
c) Emerging Trends in e learning: Social learning (concept , use of web 2.0 tools for learning, social networking sites, blogs, chats, video conferencing, discussion forum), Open Education Resources (Creative Common, Massive Open Online Courses; Concept and application), E Inclusion – Concept of E Inclusion, Application of Assistive technology in E learning , Quality of E Learning – Measuring quality of system: Information, System, Service, User Satisfaction and Net Benefits (D&M IS Success Model, 2003), Ethical Issues for E Learner and E Teacher – Teaching, Learning and Research
d) Use of ICT in Evaluation, Administration and Research: E portfolios, ICT for Research – Online Repositories and Online Libraries, Online and Offline assessment tools (Online survey tools or test generators) – Concept and Development.

a) Educational Management and Administration – Meaning, Principles, Functions and importance, Institutional building, POSDCORB, CPM, PERT, Management as a system, SWOT analysis, Taylorism, Administration as a process, Administration as a bureaucracy, Human relations approach to Administration, Organisational compliance, Organinsational development, Organisational climate
b) Leadership in Educational Administration: Meaning and Nature, Approaches to leadership: Trait, Transformational, Transactional, Value based, Cultural, Psychodynamic and Charismatic, Models of Leadership (Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Fiedler’s Contingency Model, Tri-dimensional Model, Hersey and Blanchard’s Model, Leader-Member Exchange Theory)
c) Concept of Quality and Quality in Education: Indian and International perspective, Evolution of Quality: Inspection, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management (TQM), Six sigma, Quality Gurus: Walter Shewart, Edward Deming, C.K Pralhad
d) Change Management: Meaning, Need for Planned change, Three-Step-Model of Change (Unfreezing, Moving, Refreezing), The Japanese Models of Change: Just-in-Time, Poka yoke, Cost of Quality: Appraisal Costs, Failure costs and Preventable costs, Cost Benefit Analysis, Cost Effective Analysis, Indian and International Quality Assurance Agencies: Objectives, Functions, Roles and Initiatives (National Assessment Accreditation Council [NAAC], Performance Indicators, Quality Council of India [QCI] , International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education [INQAAHE].

a) Inclusive Education: Concept, Principles, Scope and Target Groups (Diverse learners; Including Marginalized group and Learners with Disabilities), Evolution of the Philosophy of Inclusive Education: Special, Integrated, Inclusive Education, Legal Provisions: Policies and Legislations (National Policy of Education (1986), Programme of Action of Action (1992), Persons with Disabilities Act (1995), National Policy of Disabilities (2006), National Curriculum Framework (2005), Concession and Facilities to Diverse Learners (Academic and Financial), Rehabilitation Council of India Act (1992), Inclusive Education under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Features of UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) and its Implication
b) Concept of Impairment, Disability and Handicap, Classification of Disabilities based on ICF Model, Readiness of School and Models of Inclusion, Prevalence, Types, Characteristics and Educational Needs of Diverse learners’ Intellectual, Physical and Multiple Disabilities, Causes and prevention of disabilities, Identification of Diverse Learners for Inclusion, Educational Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools
c) Planning and Management of Inclusive Classrooms: Infrastructure, Human Resource and Instructional Practices, Curriculum and Curricular Adaptations for Diverse Learners, Assistive and Adaptive Technology for Diverse learners: Product (Aids and Appliances) and Process (Individualized Education Plan, Remedial Teaching), Parent-Professional Partnership: Role of Parents, Peers, Professionals, Teachers, School
d) Barriers and Facilitators in Inclusive Education: Attitude, Social and Educational, Current Status and Ethical Issues of inclusive education in India, Research Trends of Inclusive Education in India.

UGC NET Syllabus of Computer Science and Applications

Unit – 1 : Discrete Structures and Optimization

Mathematical Logic: Propositional and Predicate Logic, Propositional Equivalences, Normal Forms, Predicates and Quantifiers, Nested Quantifiers, Rules of Inference.
Sets and Relations: Set Operations, Representation and Properties of Relations, Equivalence Relations, Partially Ordering.
Counting, Mathematical Induction and Discrete Probability Basics of Counting, Pigeonhole Principle, Permutations and Combinations, Inclusion- Exclusion Principle, Mathematical Induction, Probability, Bayes’ Theorem.
Group Theory Groups, Subgroups, Semi Groups, Product and Quotients of Algebraic Structures, Isomorphism, Homomorphism, Automorphism, Rings, Integral Domains, Fields, Applications of Group Theory.
Group Theory Simple Graph, Multigraph, Weighted Graph, Paths and Circuits, Shortest Paths in Weighted Graphs, Eulerian Paths and Circuits, Hamiltonian Paths and Circuits, Planner graph, Graph Coloring, Bipartite Graphs, Trees and Rooted Trees, Prefix Codes, Tree Traversals, Spanning Trees and Cut-Sets.
Boolean Algebra: Boolean Functions and its Representation, Simplifications of Boolean Functions..
Optimization: inear Programming – Mathematical Model, Graphical Solution, Simplex and Dual Simplex Method, Sensitive Analysis; Integer Programming, Transportation and Assignment Models, PERT-CPM: Diagram Representation, Critical Path Calculations, Resource Levelling, Cost Consideration in Project Scheduling.

Unit – 1 : Discrete Structures and Optimization

Digital Logic Circuits and Components: Digital Computers, Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, Map Simplifications, Combinational Circuits, Flip-Flops, Sequential Circuits, Integrated Circuits, Decoders, Multiplexers, Registers and Counters, Memory Unit.
Data Representation: Data Types, Number Systems and Conversion, Complements, Fixed Point Representation, Floating Point Representation, Error Detection Codes, Computer Arithmetic – Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Algorithms.
Register Transfer and Microoperations: Register Transfer Language, Bus and Memory Transfers, Arithmetic, Logic and Shift Microoperations.
Basic Computer Organization and Design: Stored Program Organization and Instruction Codes, Computer Registers, Computer Instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction Cycle, Memory-Reference Instructions, Input-Output, Interrupt.
Programming the Basic Computer: Machine Language, Assembly Language, Assembler, Program Loops, Subroutines, Input-Output Programming.
Microprogrammed Control: Control Memory, Address Sequencing, Design of Control Unit.
Central Processing Unit: General Register Organization, Stack Organization, Instruction Formats, Addressing Modes, RISC Computer, CISC Computer.
Pipeline and Vector Processing: Parallel Processing, Pipelining, Arithmetic Pipeline, Instruction Pipeline, Vector Processing Array Processors.
Input-Output Organization: Peripheral Devices, Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous Data Transfer, Modes of Transfer, Priority Interrupt, DMA, Serial Communication.
Memory Hierarchy: Main Memory, Auxillary Memory, Associative Memory, Cache Memory, Virtual Memory, Memory Management Hardware.
Multiprocessors: Characteristics of Multiprocessors, Interconnection Structures, Interprocessor Arbitration, Interprocessor Communication and Synchronization, Cache Coherence, Multicore Processors.

  • Language Design and Translation Issues: Programming Language Concepts, Paradigms and Models, Programming Environments, Virtual Computers and Binding Times, Programming Language Syntax, Stages in Translation, Formal Transition Models.
  • Elementary Data Types: Properties of Types and Objects; Scalar and Composite Data Types.
  • Programming in C: Tokens, Identifiers, Data Types, Sequence Control, Subprogram Control, Arrays, Structures, Union, String, Pointers, Functions, File Handling, Command Line Argumaents, Preprocessors.
  • Object Oriented Programming: Class, Object, Instantiation, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Abstract Class, Polymorphism.
  • Programming in C++: Tokens, Identifiers, Variables and Constants; Data types, Operators, Control statements, Functions Parameter Passing, Virtual Functions, Class and Objects; Constructors and Destructors; Overloading, Inheritance, Templates, Exception and Event Handling; Streams and Files; Multifile Programs.
  • Web Programming: HTML, DHTML, XML, Scripting, Java, Servlets, Applets.
  • Computer Graphics: Video-Display Devices, Raster-Scan and Random-Scan Systems; Graphics Monitors, Input Devices, Points and Lines; Line Drawing Algorithms, Mid-Point Circle and Ellipse Algorithms; Scan Line Polygon Fill Algorithm, Boundary-Fill and Flood-Fill.
  • 2-D Geometrical Transforms and Viewing: Translation, Scaling, Rotation, Reflection and Shear Transformations; Matrix Representations and Homogeneous Coordinates; Composite Transforms, Transformations Between Coordinate Systems, Viewing Pipeline, Viewing Coordinate Reference Frame, Window to View-Port Coordinate Transformation, Viewing Functions, Line and Polygon Clipping Algorithms.
  • 3-D Object Representation, Geometric Transformations and Viewing: Polygon Surfaces, Quadric Surfaces, Spline Representation, Bezier and B-Spline Curves; Bezier and B-Spline Surfaces; Illumination Models, Polygon Rendering Methods, Viewing Pipeline and Coordinates; General Projection Transforms and Cipping.
  • Database System Concepts and Architecture: Data Models, Schemas, and Instances; Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence; Database Languages and Interfaces; Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMS.
  • Data Modeling: Entity-Relationship Diagram, Relational Model – Constraints, Languages, Design, and Programming, Relational Database Schemas, Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations; Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus; Codd Rules.
  • SQL: Data Definition and Data Types; Constraints, Queries, Insert, Delete, and Update Statements; Views, Stored Procedures and Functions; Database Triggers, SQL Injection.
  • Normalization for Relational Databases: Functional Dependencies and Normalization; Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization; Transaction Processing, Concurrency Control Techniques, Database Recovery Techniques, Object and Object-Relational Databases; Database Security and Authorization.
  • Enhanced Data Models: Temporal Database Concepts, Multimedia Databases, Deductive Databases, XML and Internet Databases; Mobile Databases, Geographic Information Systems, Genome Data Management, Distributed Databases and Client-Server Architectures.
  • Data Warehousing and Data Mining: Data Modeling for Data Warehouses, Concept Hierarchy, OLAP and OLTP; Association Rules, Classification, Clustering, Regression, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbour, Hidden Markov Model, Summarization, Dependency Modeling, Link Analysis, Sequencing Analysis, Social Network Analysis.
  • Big Data Systems: Big Data Characteristics, Types of Big Data, Big Data Architecture, Introduction to Map-Reduce and Hadoop; Distributed File System, HDFS.
  • NOSQL: NOSQL and Query Optimization; Different NOSQL Products, Querying and Managing NOSQL; Indexing and Ordering Data Sets; NOSQL in Cloud.
  • System Software: Machine, Assembly and High-Level Languages; Compilers and Interpreters; Loading, Linking and Relocation; Macros, Debuggers.
  • Basics of Operating Systems: Operating System Structure, Operations and Services; System Calls, Operating-System Design and Implementation; System Boot.
  • Process Management: Process Scheduling and Operations; Interprocess Communication, Communication in Client–Server Systems, Process Synchronization, Critical-Section Problem, Peterson’s Solution, Semaphores, Synchronization.
  • Threads: Multicore Programming, Multithreading Models, Thread Libraries, Implicit Threading, Threading Issues.
  • CPU Scheduling: Scheduling Criteria and Algorithms; Thread Scheduling, Multiple-Processor Scheduling, Real-Time CPU Scheduling.
  • Deadlocks: Deadlock Characterization, Methods for Handling Deadlocks, Deadlock Prevention, Avoidance and Detection; Recovery from Deadlock.
  • Memory Management: Contiguous Memory Allocation, Swapping, Paging, Segmentation, Demand Paging, Page Replacement, Allocation of Frames, Thrashing, Memory-Mapped Files.
  • Storage Management: Mass-Storage Structure, Disk Structure, Scheduling and Management, RAID Structure.
  • File and Input/Output Systems: Access Methods, Directory and Disk Structure; File-System Mounting, File Sharing, File-System Structure and Implementation; Directory Implementation, Allocation Methods, Free-Space Management, Efficiency and Performance; Recovery, I/O Hardware, Application I/O Interface, Kernel I/O Subsystem, Transforming I/O Requests to Hardware Operations.
  • Security: Protection, Access Matrix, Access Control, Revocation of Access Rights, Program Threats, System and Network Threats; Cryptography as a Security Tool, User Authentication, Implementing Security Defenses.
  • Virtual Machines: Types of Virtual Machines and Implementations; Virtualization.
  • Linux Operating Systems: Design Principles, Kernel Modules, Process Management, Scheduling, Memory Management, File Systems, Input and Output; Inter process Communication, Network Structure.
  • Windows Operating Systems: Design Principles, System Components, Terminal Services and Fast User Switching; File System, Networking.
  • Distributed Systems: Types of Network based Operating Systems, Network Structure, Communication Structure and Protocols; Robustness, Design Issues, Distributed File Systems.
  • Software Process Models: Software Process, Generic Process Model – Framework Activity, Task Set and Process Patterns; Process Lifecycle, Prescriptive Process Models, Project Management, Component Based Development, Aspect-Oriented Software Development, Formal Methods, Agile Process Models – Extreme Programming (XP), Adptive Software Development, Scrum, Dynamic System Development Model, Feature Driven Development, Crystal, Web Engineering.
  • Software Requirements: Functional and Non-Functional Requirements; Eliciting Requirements, Developing Use Cases, Requirement Analysis and Modelling; Requirements Review, Software Requirment and Specification (SRS) Document.
  • Software Design: Abstraction, Architecture, Patterns, Separation of Concerns, Modularity, Information Hiding, Functional Independence, Cohesion and Coupling; Object-Oriented Design, Data Design, Architectural Design, User Interface Design, Component Level Design.
  • Software Quality: McCall’s Quality Factors, ISO 9126 Quality Factors, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Risk Management, Risk Mitigation, Monitoring and Management (RMMM); Software Reliability.
  • Estimation and Scheduling of Software Projects: Software Sizing, LOC and FP based Estimations; Estimating Cost and Effort; Estimation Models, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), Project Scheduling and Staffing; Time-line Charts.
  • Software Testing: Verification and Validation; Error, Fault, Bug and Failure; Unit and Integration Tesing; White-box and Black-box Testing; Basis Path Testing, Control Structure Testing, Deriving Test Cases, Alpha and Beta Testing; Regression Testing, Performance Testing, Stress Testing.
  • Software Configuration Management: Change Control and Version Control; Software Reuse, Software Re-engineering, Reverse Engineering.
  • Data Structures: Arrays and their Applications; Sparse Matrix, Stacks, Queues, Priority Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Forest, Binary Tree, Threaded Binary Tree, Binary Search Tree, AVL Tree, B Tree, B+ Tree, B* Tree, Data Structure for Sets, Graphs, Sorting and Searching Algorithms; Hashing.
  • Performance Analysis of Algorithms and Recurrences: Time and Space Complexities; Asymptotic Notation, Recurrence Relations.
  • Design Techniques: Divide and Conquer; Dynamic Programming, Greedy Algorithms, Backtracking, Branch and Bound.
  • Lower Bound Theory: Comparison Trees, Lower Bounds through Reductions.
  • Graph Algorithms: Breadth-First Search, Depth-First Search, Shortest Paths, Maximum Flow, Minimum Spanning Trees.
  • Complexity Theory: P and NP Class Problems; NP-completeness and Reducibility.
  • Selected Topics: Number Theoretic Algorithms, Polynomial Arithmetic, Fast Fourier Transform, String Matching Algorithms.
  • Advanced Algorithms: Parallel Algorithms for Sorting, Searching and Merging, Approximation Algorithms, Randomized Algorithms.
  • Theory of Computation: Formal Language, Non-Computational Problems, Diagonal Argument, Russels’s Paradox.
  • Regular Language Models: Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), Non-Deterministic Finite Automaton (NDFA), Equivalence of DFA and NDFA, Regular Languages, Regular Grammars, Regular Expressions, Properties of Regular Language, Pumping Lemma, Non-Regular Languages, Lexical Analysis.
  • Context Free Language: Pushdown Automaton (PDA), Non-Deterministic Pushdown Automaton (NPDA), Context Free Grammar, Chomsky Normal Form, Greibach Normal Form, Ambiguity, Parse Tree Representation of Derivation Trees, Equivalence of PDA’s and Context Free Grammars; Properties of Context Free Language.
  • Turing Machines (TM): Standard Turing Machine and its Variations; Universal Turing Machines, Models of Computation and Church-Turing Thesis; Recursive and Recursively-Enumerable Languages; Context-Sensitive Languages, Unrestricted Grammars, Chomsky Hierarchy of Languages, Construction of TM for Simple Problems.
  • Unsolvable Problems and Computational Complexity: Unsolvable Problem, Halting Problem, Post Correspondence Problem, Unsolvable Problems for Context-Free Languages, Measuring and Classifying Complexity, Tractable and Intractable Problems.
  • Syntax Analysis: Associativity, Precedence, Grammar Transformations, Top Down Parsing, Recursive Descent Predictive Parsing, LL(1) Parsing, Bottom up Parsing, LR Parser, LALR(1) Parser.
  • Semantic Analysis: Attribute Grammar, Syntax Directed Definitions, Inherited and Synthesized Attributes; Dependency Graph, Evaluation Order, S-attributed and L-attributed Definitions; Type-Checking.
  • Run Time System: Storage Organization, Activation Tree, Activation Record, Stack Allocation of Activation Records, Parameter Passing Mechanisms, Symbol Table.
  • Intermediate Code Generation: Intermediate Representations, Translation of Declarations, Assignments, Control Flow, Boolean Expressions and Procedure Calls.
  • Code Generation and Code Optimization: Control-flow, Data-flow Analysis, Local Optimization, Global Optimization, Loop Optimization, Peep-Hole Optimization, Instruction Scheduling.
  • Data Communication: Components of a Data Communication System, Simplex, Half-Duplex and Duplex Modes of Communication; Analog and Digital Signals; Noiseless and Noisy Channels; Bandwidth, Throughput and Latency; Digital and Analog Transmission; Data Encoding and Modulation Techniques; Broadband and Baseband Transmission; Multiplexing, Transmission Media, Transmission Errors, Error Handling Mechanisms.
  • Computer Networks: Network Topologies, Local Area Networks, Metropolitan Area Networks, Wide Area Network, Wireless Networks, Internet.
  • Network Models: Layered Architecture, OSI Reference Model and its Protocols; TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Physical, Logical, Port and Specific Addresses; Switching Techniques.
  • Functions of OSI and TCP/IP Layers: Framing, Error Detection and Correction; Flow and Error Control; Sliding Window Protocol, HDLC, Multiple Access – CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Reservation, Polling, Token Passing, FDMA, CDMA, TDMA, Network Devices, Backbone Networks, Virtual LANs.
  • IPv4 Structure and Address Space; Classful and Classless Addressing; Datagram, Fragmentation and Checksum; IPv6 Packet Format, Mapping Logical to Physical Address (ARP), Direct and Indirect Network Layer Delivery; Routing Algorithms, TCP, UDP and SCTP Protocols; Flow Control, Error Control and Congestion Control in TCP and SCTP.
  • World Wide Web (WWW): Uniform Resource Locator (URL), Domain Name Service (DNS), Resolution – Mapping Names to Addresses and Addresses to Names; Electronic Mail Architecture, SMTP, POP and IMAP; TELNET and FTP.
  • Network Security: Malwares, Cryptography and Steganography; Secret-Key Algorithms, Public-Key Algorithms, Digital Signature, Virtual Private Networks, Firewalls.
  • Mobile Technology: GSM and CDMA; Services and Architecture of GSM and Mobile Computing; Middleware and Gateway for Mobile Computing; Mobile IP and Mobile Communication Protocol; Communication Satellites, Wireless Networks and Topologies; Cellular Topology, Mobile Adhoc Networks, Wireless Transmission and Wireless LANs; Wireless Geolocation Systems, GPRS and SMS.
  • Cloud Computing and IoT: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, Public and Private Cloud; Virtualization, Virtual Server, Cloud Storage, Database Storage, Resource Management, Service Level Agreement, Basics of IoT.
  • Approaches to AI: Turing Test and Rational Agent Approaches; State Space Representation of Problems, Heuristic Search Techniques, Game Playing, Min-Max Search, Alpha Beta Cut-off Procedures.
  • Knowledge Representation: Logic, Semantic Networks, Frames, Rules, Scripts, Conceptual Dependency and Ontologies; Expert Systems, Handling Uncertainty in Knowledge.
  • Planning: Components of a Planning System, Linear and Non-Linear Planning; Goal Stack Planning, Hierarchical Planning, STRIPS, Partial Order Planning.
  • Natural Language Processing: Grammar and Language; Parsing Techniques, Semantic Analysis and Pragmatics.
  • Multi Agent Systems: Agents and Objects; Agents and Expert Systems; Generic Structure of Multiagent System, Semantic Web, Agent Communication, Knowledge Sharing using Ontologies, Agent Development Tools.
  • Fuzzy Sets: Notion of Fuzziness, Membership Functions, Fuzzification and Defuzzification; Operations on Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Functions and Linguistic Variables; Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy Rules and Fuzzy Inference; Fuzzy Control System and Fuzzy Rule Based Systems.
  • Genetic Algorithms (GA): Encoding Strategies, Genetic Operators, Fitness Functions and GA Cycle; Problem Solving using GA.
  • Artificial Neural Networks (ANN): Supervised, Unsupervised and Reinforcement Learning; Single Perceptron, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Self-Organizing Maps, Hopfield Network.

Syllabus of MANAGEMENT for UGC NET Exam 2019

Unit I Unit II
  • Strategic Role of Human Resource Management
  • Competency Mapping & Balanced Scoreboard
  • Career Planning and Development
  • Performance Management and Appraisal
  • Organization Development, Change & OD Interventions
  • Talent Management & Skill Development
  • Employee Engagement & Work Life Balance
  • Industrial Relations: Disputes & Grievance Management, Labour Welfare and Social Security
  • Trade Union & Collective Bargaining
  • International Human Resource Management – HR Challenge of International Business
  • Green HRM
  • Accounting Principles and Standards, Preparation of Financial Statements
  • Financial Statement Analysis – Ratio Analysis, Funds Flow and Cash Flow Analysis, DuPont Analysis
  • Preparation of Cost Sheet, Marginal Costing, Cost Volume Profit Analysis
  • Standard Costing & Variance Analysis
  • Financial Management, Concept & Functions
  • Capital Structure – Theories, Cost of Capital, Sources and Finance
  • Budgeting and Budgetary Control, Types and Process, Zero base Budgeting
  • Leverages – Operating, Financial and Combined Leverages, EBIT–EPS Analysis, Financial Breakeven Point & Indifference Level.
  • Value & Returns – Time Preference for Money, Valuation of Bonds and Shares, Risk and Returns;
  • Capital Budgeting – Nature of Investment, Evaluation, Comparison of Methods; Risk and Uncertainly Analysis
  • Dividend – Theories and Determination
  • Mergers and Acquisition – Corporate Restructuring, Value Creation, Merger Negotiations, Leveraged Buyouts, Takeover
  • Portfolio Management – CAPM, APT
  • Derivatives – Options, Option Payoffs, Option Pricing, Forward Contracts & Future Contracts
  • Working Capital Management – Determinants, Cash, Inventory, Receivables and Payables Management, Factoring
  • International Financial Management, Foreign exchange market
  • Strategic Management – Concept, Process, Decision & Types
  • Strategic Analysis – External Analysis, PEST, Porter’s Approach to industry analysis, Internal Analysis – Resource Based Approach, Value Chain Analysis
  • Strategy Formulation – SWOT Analysis, Corporate Strategy – Growth, Stability, Retrenchment, Integration and Diversification, Business Portfolio Analysis – BCG, GE Business Model, Ansoff’s Product Market Growth Matrix
  • Strategy Implementation – Challenges of Change, Developing Programs Mckinsey 7s Framework
  • Marketing – Concept, Orientation, Trends and Tasks, Customer Value and Satisfaction
  • Market Segmentation, Positioning and Targeting
  • Product and Pricing Decision – Product Mix, Product Life Cycle, New Product development, Pricing – Types and Strategies
  • Place and promotion decision – Marketing channels and value networks, VMS, IMC, Advertising and Sales promotion
  • Consumer and Industrial Buying Behaviour: Theories and Models of Consumer Behaviour
  • Brand Management – Role of Brands, Brand Equity, Equity Models, Developing a Branding Strategy; Brand Name Decisions, Brand Extensions and Loyalty
  • Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Drivers, Value creation, Supply Chain Design, Designing and Managing Sales Force, Personal Selling
  • Service Marketing – Managing Service Quality and Brands, Marketing Strategies of Service Firms
  • Customer Relationship Marketing – Relationship Building, Strategies, Values and Process
  • Retail Marketing – Recent Trends in India, Types of Retail Outlets.
  • Emerging Trends in Marketing – Concept of e-Marketing, Direct Marketing, Digital Marketing and Green Marketing
  • International Marketing – Entry Mode Decisions, Planning Marketing Mix for International Markets
  • Statistics for Management: Concept, Measures Of Central Tendency and Dispersion, Probability Distribution – Binominal, Poison, Normal and Exponential
  • Data Collection & Questionnaire Design
  • Sampling – Concept, Process and Techniques
  • Hypothesis Testing – Procedure; T, Z, F, Chi-square tests
  • Correlation and Regression Analysis
  • Operations Management – Role and Scope
  • Facility Location and Layout – Site Selection and Analysis, Layout – Design and Process
  • Enterprise Resource Planning – ERP Modules, ERP implementation
  • Scheduling; Loading, Sequencing and Monitoring
  • Quality Management and Statistical Quality Control, Quality Circles, Total Quality Management – KAIZEN, Benchmarking, Six Sigma; ISO 9000 Series Standards
  • Operation Research – Transportation, Queuing Decision Theory, PERT / CPM
  • International Business – Managing Business in Globalization Era; Theories of International Trade; Balance of payment, Foreign Direct Investment – Benefits and Costs
  • Multilateral regulation of Trade and Investment under WTO
  • International Trade Procedures and Documentation; EXIM Policies
  • Role of International Financial Institutions – IMF and World Bank
  • Information Technology – Use of Computers in Management Applications; MIS, DSS
  • Artificial Intelligence and Big Data
  • Data Warehousing, Data Mining and Knowledge Management – Concepts
  • Managing Technological Change
  • Entrepreneurship Development – Concept, Types, Theories and Process, Developing Entrepreneurial Competencies
  • Intrapreneurship – Concept and Process
  • Women Entrepreneurship and Rural Entrepreneurship
  • Innovations in Business – Types of Innovations, Creating and Identifying Opportunities, Screening of Business Ideas
  • Business Plan and Feasibility Analysis – Concept and Process of Technical, Market and Financial Analysis
  • Micro and Small Scale Industries in India; Role of Government in Promoting SSI
  • Sickness in Small Industries – Reasons and Rehabilitation
  • Institutional Finance to Small Industries – Financial Institutions, Commercial Banks, Cooperative Banks, Micro Finance.

Syllabus of PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION for 2019

Unit I

Introduction to Public Administration: Public Administration- Meaning, Nature, Scope & Significance; Evolution and Present Status of the Discipline; Politics- Administration Dichotomy; Globalization and Public Administration; Paradigm shift from Government to Governance. Principles of Organization: Division of work; Hierarchy; Coordination; Unity of Command; Span of Control; Authority, Power and Responsibility; Delegation, Centralization and Decentralization; Line, Staff and Auxiliary Agencies; Leadership and Supervision; Decision-making and Communication. Meaning, Nature and Scope of Personnel Administration: Classification, Recruitment, Training, Promotion, Compensation and service conditions, Discipline, Civil Service Neutrality, Anonymity and Commitment, Professional Associations and Unionism.

Unit II

Administrative Thought: Approaches to the study of Public Administration: Oriental – Kautilya; Classical – F W Taylor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick ; Human Relations – Elton Mayo, Mary Parker Follett; Behaviouralism – Chester Barnard, Herbert Simon; Motivation – Abraham Maslow, Fredrick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor; Organizational Humanism – Chris Argyris, Rensis Likert; Writers on Administration: Dwight Waldo, Ferrel Heady, Robert Golembiewski and Peter Drucker; Minnobrook Perspective, New Public Service and Post Modernism.

Unit III

Administrative Thought: Indian Administration: Evolution – Ancient, Mughal and British Periods; Constitutional Framework: Parliamentary and Federal Features.
Union Government: President; Prime Minister & Council of Ministers; Cabinet Committees; Central Secretariat; Cabinet Secretariat; and Prime Minister Office. Election Commission and Electoral Reforms, Union State Relations. Accountability: Legislative; Executive; and Judicial.
Citizen Grievance Redressal Mechanism: Lok Pal; Lok Ayukta; Central Vigilance Commission and Regulatory Authorities. Issue Areas: Politician and Civil Servant relations, Generalists and Specialists debate and Combating Corruption.
Civil Services: Classification – All India Services, Central Services and State Services; Recruitment Agencies – Union Public Service Commission, State Public Service Commissions and other Commissions and Boards: Capacity Building of Civil Servants and Civil Service Reforms.
Planning: Planning Commission, National Development Council, NITI Aayog, State Planning Commissions / Boards and Planning Departments.
Judiciary: Indian Constitution and Independence of Judiciary: Supreme Court; High Courts; Judicial Review and Public Interest Litigation and Judicial Reforms. Police Administration and Reforms. E- Governance Initiatives in Indian administration.

  • State & Local Administration: Constitutional Framework of State Administration – State Legislature; Governor – Role and Functions; Chief Minister – Powers and Functions; Council of Ministers; Role and Functions of Chief Secretary; State Secretariat ; Directorates and Commissionerate; District Administration – Concept and Evolution, District Collector – Power, Functions and Changing role; Autonomous District Councils – Structure, Powers and Functions, District Rural Development Agency; Evolution of Local Governance in India.
  • Local Governance: 73rd & 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts: State Election Commission ; State Finance Commission; District Planning Committee; Rural Governance – Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads, Finance in PRIs, Personnel administration at local level; Policies and Programmes of Rural Development – MGNAREGA.
  • Growth of Urbanization, Urban Governance – Structure, Composition, Functions of Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils, Nagar Panchayats and Metropolitan Governance – Sources of Finance; Personnel Administration. Reforms in Urban Governance -Solid Waste Management, Smart and AMRUT cities
  • Comparative and Development Administration: Comparative Public Administration: Concept, Nature, Scope and Significance of Comparative Public Administration; Public Administration and its Environment. Approaches and Methods to the study of Comparative Administration: Institutional, Behavioural, Structural-Functional, Ecological and Systems Approaches.Fred Riggs’s Typology of Societies and Features; Problems of Comparative Research; Comparative Studies –Influence of Globalization; Salient Features of the administrative systems of UK, USA, France and Japan. Development Administration: Development and its Dimensions. Development and Modernization; Approaches to Development – Sustainable Development and Anti-Development; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • Development Administration: Concept, Nature, Scope, Objectives, Features and Significance; Ecology of Development Administration, Contribution of Fred Riggs, Dwight Waldo and Edward Widener; Role of Bureaucracy in Development. Globalization and Development Administration; Emergence of Non-State actors in Development Administration; Public-Private Partnerships; Corporate Social Responsibility, Human Development Indicators and Social Audit.
  • Economic and Financial Administration: Economic Policies – Mixed Economy to Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG); New Economic Policy (NEP); Industrial Policy since Independence; Government in Business – Public Enterprises-Concept, Growth and Forms of Public Enterprises; Management, Problem of Accountability and Autonomy; Disinvestment Policies.
  • Financial Administration: Public Finance – Revenue and Expenditure: Nature, Scope and Significance of Financial Administration; Budget – Meaning, Purpose and Significance; Budgetary Process – preparation, enactment and execution; Types of Budget – PPBS, Performance Budget, Zero-Based Budget and Gender Budget; Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBMA) and Sunset legislation. Fiscal Federalism – Union-State Financial Relations, Finance Commission. Financial Control-Legislature and Executive; Parliamentary Committees and Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Taxation policies – Principles of Taxation –Progressive and Proportional taxation – Reforms in Taxation policies.
  • Social Welfare Administration: Concept of Social Welfare, Social Justice and Social Change; Concept of Equity and Inclusiveness in Social Justice; Concept of Affirmative action-Reservations; Institutional arrangement for Social Welfare & Social Justice Administration; NGOs, Civil Societies and Voluntary Agencies; Policies, Programmes and Institutional Framework for the Protection and Welfare of SCs/ STs / OBCs/ Women/ Children, Aged, Differently-abled (Divyang) and Minorities Commissions –Women, SC/ST, Minority- Role and Functions.
  • Disaster Management – Nature and Types of Disaster; Institutional Arrangements for Disaster Management; Role of State and Non-State actors.
  • Public Policy: Nature, Scope and Importance of Public Policy; Evolution of Public Policy and Policy Sciences; Public Policy and Public Administration. Approaches to Public Policy – Process Approach, Logical Positivism, Phenomenological Approach, Participatory and Normative Approaches.
  • Theories and Models of Policy Making – Harold Lasswell, Charles Lindblom, Yehezkel Dror .
  • Institutions of Policy Making – Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Types of Policy Analysis – Empirical, Normative, Retrospective and Prospective, Prescriptive and Descriptive. Policy Implementation, Outcomes and Evaluation.
  • Constraints on Public Policy – Socio-economic, Political, Institutional and Cultural. Role of Media, Public Opinion, Civil Society and Pressure Groups on Policy Making.
  • Governance and Good Governance: Ancient Discourse – Kautilya, Plato and Aristotle on Good Governance; Elements and Forms of Good Governance; Theories and Concepts of Governance – World Bank and UNDP; State, Market and Civil Society, Public Choice Theory, New Public Management, Public Value Theory, Governance as Theory, Governance and Public Governance.
  • Networking and Collaborative Governance, Business Process Re-engineering, ICT and Governance – e-Government and e-Governance, e-Readiness and Digital Divide.
  • Accountability, Openness and Transparency; Gender and Governance.
  • Citizen and Governance: Civil Society – Role and Limitations, Citizen Participation, Right to Information – RTI Act and Administrative Reforms, National Information Commission, Citizen Charter – Concept, Objectives and Significance.
  • Ethics and Public Accountability in Governance: Rule of Law and Administrative Law, Delegated Legislation and Administrative Adjudication. Ethical Foundations of Governance: Constitutional Values, Family, Society and Education.
  • Research Methodology: Social Science Research- Meaning and Significance; Distinction between Methodology and Method; Facts and Values in Research; Role of Research in Theory-Building; Scientific Method; Objectivity in Social Research; Types of Research; Identification of Research Problem; Hypotheses and Null-Hypotheses; Validation of Hypothesis; Research Design; Methods of Data Collection- Primary and Secondary sources- ( Observation; Questionnaire and Interview, Use of Library and Internet);Sampling and Sampling Techniques; Scales of Measurement; Analysis of Data and Use of Computers in Social Science Research-SPSS; Citation patterns and Ethics of Research ; Bibliography; Report Writing.

UGC NET Syllabus for History (2019)

Unit I

Negotiating the Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, Excavation, Epigraphy and Numismatics. Dating of Archaeological Sites. Literary Sources: Indigenous Literature: Primary and Secondary: problem of dating Religious and Secular Literature, Myths, Legends, etc. Foreign Accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arabic.
Pastoralism and Food production: Neolithic and Chalcolithic Phase: Settlement, distribution, tools and patterns of exchange.
Indus/Harappa Civilization: Origin, extent, major sites, settlement pattern, craft specialization, religion, society and polity, Decline of Indus Civilization, Internal and external trade, First urbanization in India.
Vedic and later Vedic periods : Aryan debates, Political and Social Institutions, State Structure and Theories of State; Emergence of Varnas and Social Stratification, Religious and Philosophical Ideas. Introduction of Iron Technology, Megaliths of South India.
Expansion of State system: Mahajanapadas, Monarchical and Republican States, Economic and Social Developments and Emergence of Second Urbanization in 6th century BCE; Emergence of heterodox sects-Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivikas.

Unit II

From State to Empire: Rise of Magadha, Greek invasion under Alexander and its effects, Mauryan expansion, Mauryan polity, society, economy, Asoka’s Dhamma and its Nature, Decline and Disintegration of the Mauryan Empire, Mauyan art and architecture, Asokan edicts: language and script.Dissolution of Empire and Emergence of Regional Powers: Indo-Greeks, Sungas, Satavahanas, Kushanas and Saka-Ksatrapas, Sangam literature, polity and society in South India as reflected in Sangam literature. Trade and commerce from 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE, Trade with the Roman World, Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism, Kharavela and Jainism, Post-Mauryan art and Architecture. Gandhara, Mathura and Amaravati schools.
Gupta Vakataka age: Polity and Society, Agrarian Economy, Land Grants, Land Revenue and Land Rights, Gupta Coins, Beginning of Temple Architecture, Emergence of Puranic Hinduism, Development of Sanskrit Language and Literature. Developments in Science Technology, Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine.
Harsha and his Times: Administration and Religion.
Salankayanas and Visnukundins in Andhradesa.

  • Emergence of Regional Kingdoms: Kingdoms in Deccan: Gangas, Kadmabas, Western and Eastern Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Hoysalas and Yadavas.
  • Kingdoms in South India: Pallavas, Ceras, Colas and Pandyas, Kingdoms in Eastern India: Palas and Senas of Bengal, Varmans of Kamarupa, Bhaumakaras and Somavamsis of Odisha.
  • Kingdoms in Western India: Maitrakas of Vallabhi and Chalukyas of Gujarat.
  • Kingdoms in North India: Gurjara-Pratiharas, Kalacuri-Chedis, Gahadavalas and Paramaras.
  • Characteristics of Early Medieval India: Administration and Political Structure Legitimation of Kingship.
  • Agrarian economy; land grants, changing production relations; graded land rights and peasantry, water resources, taxation system, coins and currency system;
  • Arab contracts: Suleiman Ghaznavid conquests. Alberuni’s Accounts.
  • Trade and urbanization: patterns of trade, and urban settlements, ports and trade routes, merchandise and exchange, trade guilds; trade and colonization in south-east Asia.
  • Growth of Brahminical religions: Vaisnavism and Saivism; Temples; Patronage and Regional Ramification; Temple Architecture and Regional Styles. Dana, Tirtha and Bhakti, Tamil Bhakti movement – Shankara, Madhava and Ramanujacharya.
  • Source of Medieval Indian History: Archaeological, Epigraphic and Numismatic sources, Material evidences and Monuments; Chronicles; Literary sources – Persian, Sanskrit and Regional languages; Daftar Khannas: Firmans, Bahis / Pothis / Akhbarat; Foreign Travellers’ Accounts – Persian and Arabic.
  • Political Developments – The Delhi Sultanate – the Ghorids, the Turks, the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, theSayyids and the Lodis. Decline of Delhi Sultanate.
  • Foundation of the Mughal Empire – Babur, Humayun and the Suris ; Expansion and Consolidation from Akbar to Aurangzeb. Decline of the Mughal Empire.
  • Later Mughals and Disintegration of the Mughal Empire.
  • The Vijayanagara and the Bahmanis – Deccan Sultanate; Bijapur, Golkonda, Bidar, Berar and Ahmadnagar – Rise, Expansion and Disintegration; Eastern Gangas and Suryavamshi Gajapatis.
  • Rise of the Marathas & the foundation of Swaraj by Shivaji ; its expansion under the Peshwas ; Mughal – Maratha relations, Maratha Confederacy, Causes of Decline.
  • Administration & Economy: Administration under the Sultanate, Nature of State – Theocratic and Theocentric, Central, Provincial and Local Administration, Law of succession.
  • Sher Shah’s Administrative Reforms ; Mughal Administration – Central, Provincial and Local : Mansabdari and Jagirdari Systems.
  • Administrative System in the Deccan – The Vijayanagara State & Polity, Bahamani Administrative System; Maratha Administration – Asta Pradhan.
  • Agricultural Production and Irrigation System, Village Economy, Peasantry, Grants and Agricultural Loans, Urbanization and Demographic Structure.
  • Inter-State Relations during the Sultanate and the Mughals.
  • Industries – Cotton Textiles, Handicrafts, Agro-Based industries, Organisation, Factories & Technology. Trade and Commerce – State Policies, Internal and External Trade: European Trade, Trade Centres and Ports, Transport and Communication.
  • Hundi (Bills of Exchange) and Insurance, State Income and Expenditure, Currency, Mint System; Famines and Peasant Revolts.
  • Frontier Policies under Delhi Sultanate and Mughals.
  • Society and Culture: Social Organisation and Social Structure.
  • The Sufis – Their Orders, Beliefs and Practices, the leading Sufi Saints, Social Synchronization.
  • Bhakti Movement – Shaivism; Vaishnavism, Shaktism.
  • The Saints of the Medieval Period – North and South – their impact on Socio-Political and Religious Life – Women Saints of Medieval India.
  • Social Classification: Ruling Class, Major Religious Groups, the Ulemas, the Mercantile and Professional Classes – Rajput Society.
  • Rural society – Petty Chieftains, Village Officials, Cultivators and Non-Cultivating Classes, Artisans.
  • Fine Arts – Major Schools of Painting – Mughal, Rajasthani, Pahari, Garhwali; Development of Music.
  • Art and Architecture, Indo-Islamic Architecture, Mughal Architecture, Regional Styles.
  • Indo-Arabic Architecture, Mughal Gardens, Maratha Forts, Shrines and Temples.
  • Development of Education, Centres of Education and Curriculum, Madarasa Education.
  • Sources of Modern Indian History: Archieval Materials, Biographies and Memoirs, Newspapers, Oral Evidence, Creative Literature and Painting, Monuments, Coins.
  • Rise of British Power: European Traders in India in the 16th to 18th Centuries – Portuguese, Dutch, French and the British.
  • Establishment and Expansion of British Dominion in India. British Relations with Principal Indian States – Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Carnatic and Punjab.
  • Administration of the Company and the Crown; Evolution of Central and Provincial Structure under East India Company.
  • Paramountcy, Civil Service, Judiciary, Police and the Army under the Company; British Policy and Paramountcy in the Princely States under the Crown.
  • Revolt of 1857, Causes, Nature and Impact.
  • Constitutional Changes, 1909 – 1935.
  • Colonial Economy: Changing Composition, Volume and Direction of Trade.
  • Expansion and Commercialization of Agriculture, Land Rights, Land Settlements, Rural Indebtedness, Landless Labour, Irrigation and Canal System.
  • Decline of Industries – Changing Socio-Economic Conditions of Artisans; De-urbanisation; Economic Drain; World Wars and Economy.
  • British Industrial Policy; Major Modern Industries; Nature of Factory Legislation; Labour and Trade Union Movements.
  • Monetary Policy, Banking, Currency and Exchange, Railways and Road Transport, Communications – Post & Telegraph.
  • Growth of New Urban Centres; New Features of Town Planning and Architecture, Urban Society and Urban Problems.
  • Indian Society in Transition: Contact with Christianity – the Missions and Missionaries; Critique of Indian Social and Economic Practices and Religious Beliefs; Educational and Other Activities.
  • The New Education – Government Policy; Levels and Contents; English Language; Development of Science, Technology, Public Health & Medicine – Towads Modernism.
  • Indian Renaissance – Socio-Religious Reforms; Emergence of Middle Class; Caste Associations and Caste Mobility. Women’s Question – Nationalist Discourse; Women’s Organisations; British Legislation concerning Women, Gender Identity & Constitutional Position.
  • Modernisation of Indian Languages and Literary Forms – Reorientation in Painting, Music and Performing Arts.
  • The Printing Press – Journalistic Activity and the Public opinion.
  • Rise of Indian Nationalism: Social and Economic basis of Nationalism.
  • Birth of Indian National Congress; Ideologies and Programmes of the Indian
  • National Congress, 1885-1920: Early Nationalists, Assertive Nationalists and Revolutionaries.
  • Swadeshi and Swaraj.
  • Gandhian Mass Movements; Subas Chandra Bose and INA; Role of Middle Class in National Movement; Women Participation in National Movement.
  • Left Wing Politics.
  • Depressed Class Movement.
  • Communal Politics; Muslim League and Genesis of Pakistan.
  • Towards Independence and Partition.
  • India after Independence: Challenges of Partition; Integration of the Indian Princely States; Kashmir, Hyderabad & Junagarh.
  • B.R. Ambedkar – The making of the Indian Constitution, its Features.
  • The Structure of Bureaucracy.
  • New Education Policy.
  • Historical Method, Research, Methodology and Historiography.
  • Scope and Importance of History
  • Objectivity and Bias in History
  • Heuristics Operation, Criticism in History, Synthesis and Presentation
  • History and its Auxiliary Sciences
  • History a Science, Arts or a Social Science
  • Causation and Imagination in History
  • Significance of Regional History
  • Recent Trends of Indian History
  • Research Methodology
  • Hypothesis in History
  • Area of Proposed Research
  • Sources – Data Collection, Primary / Secondary, Original and Transit Sources
  • Trends in Historical Research
  • Recent Indian Historiography
  • Selection of Topic in History
  • Notes Taking, References, Footnotes and Bibliography
  • Thesis and Assignment Writing
  • Plagiarism, Intellectual Dishonesty and History Writing
  • Beginnings of Historical Writings – Greek, Roman and Church Historiography
  • Renaissance and its Impact on History Writing
  • Negative and Positive Schools of Historical Writing

Syllabus of Physical education for UGC NET Exam 2019

Unit I

1. Physical education and adapted physical education, their objectives
2. Philosophies of education as applied to physical education
3. Development of Physical education in Greece, Rome, Sweden, Russia England, Denmark, Germany, USA, Australia and China.
4. Growth and development of physical education in India:
5. Recreation- its principles, characteristics and importance. Modern trends in recreation. Indoor and outdoor recreational programmes. Recreational programmes for various categories of people.
6. Wellness- its importance, benefits and challenges. Development and maintenance of wellness.
7. Teaching Aptitude – nature, objectives, characteristics of teaching, learner characteristics and teaching methods.
8. Social aspects of sports- sports as a socializing agency, social values, sports leadership, sports as cultural heritage and social aspects of competition.
9. Ancient & Modern Olympics games, Asian and Commonwealth games. Structure and functions of international and national bodies controlling various games and sports, Prominent honours and awards in games and sports.

Unit – II

1. Exercise physiology its scope and importance in the field of physical education and sports.
2. Cardio respiratory adaptations to long and short term physical activities.
3. Muscle- its types , characteristics and functions. Microscopic structure of muscle fibre. Sliding filament theory of muscular contraction. Types of muscle fibres and sports performance. Muscular adaptations to exercise.
4. Neuro-muscular junction and transmission of nerve impulse, kinesthetic Sense organs and neural control of motor skills.
5. Bio-chemical aspects of exercise – Metabolism of food products. Aerobic and anaerobic systems during rest and exercise. Direct and indirect methods of measuring energy cost of exercise.
6. Recovery process – Physiological aspects of fatigue. Restoration of energy stores. Recovery oxygen. Nutritional aspects of performance.
7. Environmental influence on human physiology under exercise.
8. Women in sports- trainability. Physiological gender differences and special problems of women athletes.
9. Aging – Physiological consequences, life style management and healthful aging.
10. Physiological responses of various therapeutic modalities and rehabilitation.
11. Physiological aspects of various Ergogenic aids. Massage manipulations and their physiological responses.


  • Kinesiology and biomechanics. Modern trends in biomechanics. Planes and Axes of human body. Joints and their movements.
  • Muscle attachments – Origin, insertion, action and leverage of the principal muscles used in sports.
  • Motion: its laws and their application in sports. Projectile and principles of projections
  • Linear and angular kinematics and kinetics.
  • Friction, Spin, impact and elasticity.
  • Air and water dynamics.
  • Mechanical advantage and applications of Levers in sports.
  • Posture and its deformities with their corrective exercises.
  • Kinesiological, Muscular and mechanical analyses of fundamental movements:
  • Mechanical analyses of major sports skills
  • Sports psychology- its importance in the field of physical education and sports.
  • Motivation in sports- types, theories and dynamics.
  • Psychological factors affecting sports performance- Emotions, Anxiety aggression, stress, self-confidence, concentration , mental practice and goal setting.
  • Personality- Theories of personality, measurement of personality. Group dynamics, Group cohesion and leadership in sports.
  • Cognitive process- memory and thinking. Principles of Motor skill learning.
  • Transfer of training and its types with its implication in sports.
  • Long- and short-term psychological preparation for performance/ competition.
  • Psychological skill training for activation and relaxation
  • Spectators and sports performance.
  • Development of teacher education for physical education in India. Comparative study of professional preparation in physical education of India with those of USA, Russia, Germany, Australia and UK.
  • Professional and other courses of physical education in India. Role of Government agencies monitoring professional courses in physical education.
  • Qualities, qualifications and responsibilities of physical education personnel at primary, secondary and higher education levels. Scope of physical education personnel in the promotion of health, fitness and wellness.
  • Recent Government policies for promoting physical education and sports in India.
  • Hierarchy of organizational set-up in physical education at schools, colleges and university level.
  • Role of public & private sectors in the promotion of physical education and sports in the country.
  • Curriculum development- Concepts and principles of curriculum planning. Subject matter for different levels of education – primary, secondary and higher education.
  • Curriculum design and content- importance, selection and classification of subject matter with reference to age, sex and differently abled pupils. Integrated programme for boys and girls.
  • Teaching aids – Time-table, Concepts, credit system for various subject courses- theory and practical, Impact of technology in physical education and sports,
  • Curriculum evaluation: Concepts and purpose; procedure and appraisal.
  • Health- its objectives and spectrum. Health education, its importance and principles. Role of genetics and environment in achieving health. Health-related physical fitness.
  • Community health programme- Health appraisal & health instructions. International and national health promoting government & private agencies.
  • School Health programme and personal hygiene.
  • Communicable diseases: causes, symptoms, prevention through other means and Immunization.
  • Psychosomatic disorders/ sedentary life style diseases : causes, symptoms and prevention.
  • Obesity related health problems. Body weight control and its significance on health. Role of exercise, dieting and combination of exercise & dieting on weight control.
  • First-aid- objectives and principles. First-aid for Shock, poisoning, burns, drowning, bleeding, electric shock and common sports injuries.
  • Pollution- Air, water, sound and radiation. Effects of pollution on health, Preventive and safety measures from pollution. Nutrition- Balanced diet and its components. Nutritional Deficiencies. Understanding of malnutrition and nutritional supplements.
  • Effects of smoking, alcohol, & drugs on health; prevention and rehabilitation.
  • Sports training- its characteristics and principles. Training load, its features, principles and adaptation process. Means and methods of executing training load. Overload, its Causes, symptoms and remedial measures.
  • Strength- its characteristics, types of strength, factors determining strength and strength development.
  • Endurance- its characteristics, types of endurance, factors determining endurance and endurance development.
  • Speed- its characteristics, types of Speed, factors determining Speed and speed development.
  • Flexibility-its characteristics, types of flexibility, factors determining flexibility and flexibility development.
  • Coordinative abilities- its characteristics, types of coordinative abilities, factors determining coordinative abilities and development of coordinative abilities.
  • Technique and skill- its characteristics and importance. Different stages of technique development and technique training. Tactics and strategy.
  • Planning- its importance and principles. Types of planning.
  • Periodization- its importance, objectives and types of periodization. Concept of different periods – Preparatory, competition and transitional. Types of Competition:
  • Talent identification- process and procedure.
  • Research in physical education- its importance and classification. Ethical issues in research.
  • Methods of research- Descriptive, historical and experimental. Experimental research designs.
  • Identification and formulation of research problem. Types of research hypotheses and their formulation. Hypotheses testing.
  • Tools of research- Questionnaires, opinionnaires, interviews and observation.
  • Sources and steps of literature search- library, research data bases, internet- search engines, online journals. Note taking and critical reading.
  • Sampling Techniques– Probability and non-probability.
  • Data, its types and collecting measures.
  • Normal probability curve and grading scales.
  • Statistical processes, their importance and uses in research.
  • Application of parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques in research.
  • Computer applications- statistical packages for data analyses- SPSS, e-mail, search engines and Microsoft office.
  • Preparation of research proposal, report, abstract, paper for publication and paper for presentation.
  • Test, measurement and evaluation -their types and importance in physical education and sports. Principles and processes of evaluation in physical education.
  • Criteria of selecting an appropriate test and administration of testing programme. Types of tests and construction of standard knowledge and skill tests.
  • Tests for fitness- Physical fitness, motor fitness, motor ability and motor educability. Health related fitness tests.
  • Test for fitness components- strength, endurance, speed, flexibility and coordinative abilities.
  • Sports skill tests- Badminton, Basketball, Football, Hockey, Tennis, and Volleyball.
  • Anthropometric Measurements- land marks and measurement of various body segments, height, sitting-height, weight, diameters, circumferences, skinfolds, body mass index, ponderal index.
  • Somatotype and Posture evaluating techniques.
  • Testing of physiological phenomenon’s- Blood pressure, breathing frequency vital capacity, heart rate, pulse rate, body temperature and body composition.
  • Tests for psychological variables- Anxiety, aggression, team cohesion, achievement motivation, mental-toughness, and self-efficacy.
  • Management- its principles and theories. Scope of management in physical education and sports. Guiding principles for organizing physical education & sports programmes in institutions.
  • Personnel management- objectives and principles. Self-appraisal, communication skills and time management. Essential skills of administration.
  • Financial management- objectives, purposes, principles and scope. Planning and preparation of budget. Mechanics of purchase and auditing. Supervision – objectives, principles and importance of supervision. Techniques of supervision. Duties and responsibilities of a supervisor.
  • Facility management- planning, procuring and maintenance of facilities- indoor and outdoor facilities. Planning and management of sports infrastructure. Management of records.
  • Role of sports manager- interpersonal, informational and decision making. Managerial skills – technical, human and conceptual. Qualities and qualification of sports manager.
  • Event management- its principles, planning, check list, rehearsal, itinerary, execution, reporting and follow-up procedures of an event.
  • Public relation- principles of public relations in physical education and sports. Mass Media- communication and publicity, qualifications of Public relation officer.